Software is the brain of the system, which gives a simulation environment to the functioning of the robot.The hardware brings directions stimulated by the software into action.Given enough units, if any individual unit in such a metastructure fails, the system would self-repair by replacing nonfunctional units with functional ones.Self-reconfiguration is a process by which a robot metastructure constructed from physical structures or subsystems of  modular robots autonomously self-organizes and changes shape in order to adapt to different tasks or classes of terrain.
However, only limited hardware platforms have been developed and used so far.
Self-replication is another one of the characteristics of a modern swarm robot, in which several robot modules connect with each other to form an exact copy of the original robot .
The concept of kinematic self-reproduction has been applied in many research areas such as cellular automata, nanotechnology, macromolecular chemistry, and computer simulations.
Finally, we offer conclusions on our survey results.
In this section, we provide a brief survey of related work on swarm robot self-reconfiguration, self-replication, and self-reassembly.